When an engine needs repair, it is not always possible to definitely determine beforehand whether the engine can be repaired by disassembling only cylinders and heads, only gearcase; or whether engine must be completely disassembled for crankcase section repair.

Usually, only upper-end repair is needed and it is recommended procedure to first strip motorcycle for cylinder head, cylinder and piston repair as described in "Stripping Motorcycle for Engine Repair," ,'teps 1 through 10.

After disassembling cylinder head and cylinder it may be found that lower end repair is necessary. This requires removal of engine crankcase from frame as described in steps 10 through 20 in "Stripping Motorcycle for Engine Repair."

In cases where it has been definitely determined beforehand that the lower portion of engine (crankcase) is in need of repair, remove complete engine from chassis before starting disassembly as described in steps 1 through 20 of "Stripping Motorcycle for Engine Repair."

Symptoms indicating a need for engine repair are often misleading, but generally if more than one symptom is present, possible symptom causes can be narrowed down to make at least a partial trouble diagnosis. An above normal comsumption of oil, for example, could be caused by several mechanical faults (see "Locating Operating Troubles," Section ID). But when accompanied by a blue-gray smoke from the exhaust, and when low compression is present, it indicates the rings need replacing. Low compression by itself, however, indicates improperly seated valves, not worn rings.

A noisy engine is usually caused by loose bearings. Main bearings are generally more, durable than rod bearings or bushings so the latter should be suspected first. Certain "knocking" noises may be caused by loose bearings, others by piston slap, a condition where piston or cylinder or both are worn out of round and loose fitting, allowing the piston to slap from front to rear of cylinder as it moves up and down.

Most frequently, valves, rings, pins, bushings and bearings need attention at about the same time. If the symptoms can be narrowed down through the process of elimination to indicate any one of the above components is worn, it is best to give attention to all of the cylinder head and cylinder parts.

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