General

The rectifier-regulator manufactured by Tympanium is a series regulator with a shunt control. The circuit combines the functions of rectifying and regulating. Figure 5-14 shows the schematic diagram.

The circuit essentially is a full wave bridge made up of two SCR's and two diodes - SCR1, SCR2, D1 and D2.

Each SCR has a control gate which turns it "on" or "off" (makes it conduct or not conduct). When the alternator voltage is too high, both SCR's turn "off," the current paths are blocked, and the battery is not charged. When the voltage lowers to an acceptable level, the opposite happens and the battery is charged.

The rectifier-regulator has a set, predetermined "on-off" voltage built into it. This value is determined byZ1, R1 and R2. These components are factory adjusted so that when the voltage gets above 14.5 volts nominal, the SCR's are turned off.

The battery voltage is sensed through D3, R2, Z1, and R1. When the voltage at the point between Z1 and R2 exceeds 14.5 volts, it turns Q1 "on" which, in turn, turns 02 "off." Thus, 01 and 02 form a flip-flop circuit where when one is "on" the other is "off" and vice versa. With Q2 "off," the current can not flow to the gates. This means the bridge essentially has been opened and there is no current flow to charge the battery.

As soon as the voltage gets below 14.5 volts at the point between Z1 and R1 the opposite happens. 01 turns "off," 02 turns "on," current flows to the gates, the bridge is closed and there is current flow to charge the battery.

In summary, the active elements of the regulating circuit are: 01, 02, SCR1 and SCR2. The elements of the sensing circuit are D3, R2, Z1 and R1.

One of the advantages of a series regulator is that there is automatic reverse polarity protection. If the battery is connected backward in a normal bridge, there will be a dead short. Not so in this circuit, because the SCR's simply can not be turned on.

To prevent high voltage build up, shunting SCR3 and SCR4 have been added. These SCR's simply short out the alternator winding when the voltage gets too high. The shunt regulator voltage setting is 40 to 50 volts. When this voltage is reached, current flows through zener diode Z2 and resistor R8 which turns "on" the shunt SCR's. Turned "on," the output is directly shorted.

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