Battery Descriptions

There are two types of batteries used in Handa motorcycles, scootors and ATVs: the conventional battery and the Maintenance free battery.

THE STRUCTURE Of= A CONVENTIONAL BATTERY

FILLER CAP

terminal negative plate separator glass mat positive plate

Conventional Battery:

This battery conducts electricity when the chemical action o electrolyte (sulphuric acid) takes place between the two plates (lead peroxide and lead). The sulfate in the electrolyte combines with the plate materials, forming lead sulphate (battery discharge). By passing an electric current back into the battery, the plates revert to lead peroxide and Jead (battery char gay.

Since the specific gravity of the electrolyte (relative weight of sulphuric acid as compared with an equal volume of water) varies, the battery state of charge is determined by measuring ■the electrolyte's Specific gravity.

A WARMING

terminal

FILLER CAP

negative plate separator glass mat positive plate

BREATHER ELBOW

The battery gives off explosive gases; keep sparks, flames and cigarettes away. Provide adequate ventilation when charging or using the batteries in an enclosed space.

The battery contains sulfuric acid (electrolyte). Contact with skin or eyes may cause severe burns. Wear protective clothing and a face shield.

— If electrolyte gets on your akin, flush with water.

— If electrolyte gets in your eyes, flush with water for at least 1 & minutes and call a physician immediately.

Elect lolyte is poisonous. If swallowed, drink large quart* titias of water or milk and follow with milk of magnesia or vegetable oil and call a physician. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

current iL

(LEAD PEROXIDE1

(LEAD PEROXIDE1

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electrolyte

Use only distilled water in the battery. CAUTION

- Tap water will shorten the service life of the battery.

CAUTION

Avoid filling the battery above the UPPER LEVEL line to prevent an electrolyte overflow which could corrode the engine or nearby parts.

When you charge the lead.'acid battery, electro lysis breaks the water down into its components, hydrogen end oxygen. Because of the generation of those gases, you must remove the filler plugs while charging the battery.

The battery is equipped with a vent, usually routed overboard into tube, to rid it of the gases produced during normal use.

The battery is said to be overcharged when an excess current is supplied to the battery, When the battery is overcharged, volatile gas is emitted from the plates, and electrolyte temperature rises. This temperature rise causes more rapid loss of water from the battery electrolyte. This water loss and temperature rise will shorten the battery life, If left unchecked, water loss and high temperature will damage the battery beyond repair.

HYDROGEN GAS

oxygen gas oxygen gas

HYDROGEN GAS

Because the motorcycle battery is constantly subjected to charging and drscharging cycles, the water in the electrolyte is boiled off.

When the water is boiled off to the point where the plates become exposed, a white crystalline deposit forms. This process is called sulfation (lead sulfate).

The white crystalline lead sulfate, unlike the lead sulfate produced by discharging, is difficult to revert to lead peroxide and lead.

This causes damage to the battory and shortens the battery life. This can occur not only when the electrolyte level is low but also when the battery is discharged "for long periods. Remember that the electrolyte level goes down when the water in the battery evaporates. Always add distilled water, not electrolyte.

How Water Maintenance Its Level Always

MAINTENANCE-FREE BATTERY

Tho Maintenance-Free battery is a sealed battery that requires no electrolyte level inspection or periodic refilling.

SAFETY VENT FILTER

filler cap

SAFETY VENT FILTER

filler cap

Similar in design to the conventional battery, the MF battery produces hydrogen and oxygen gas. However, the plates are designed not to convert to lead completely. (This state of lead is called sponge lead.)

When the battery is overcharged and the positive plates produce oxygen gas. the negative plates are not completely converted to lead. There is no hydorogen gas is produced.

The oxygen produced from the positive plate reacts with the active material dead] on the negative plate, and produces water. Therefore, the water does not need to be added to MF batteries.

The MF batteries have safety valves; designed to open up when excessive gas is produced. The safety valves close and seal the battery again when the internal pressure returns to normal, A ceramic filter is placed over the safety valves to prevent any internal ignition of the gases produced,

AWftKNING

> Electrolyte Is poisonous.

' Explosive gas can vent out from a battery when K Is overcharged, For this reason, keep an open flame or lit cigarette eway from a battery.

Use the electrolyte container designated for the specific battery, CAUTION

' The MF battery life depends largely on the proper amount of electrolyte being added at the start of service,

NOTE

j~* Avoid interchanging conventional and MF batteries. They have different charging components. CAUTION

I • Removing the sealing caps from the cells may damage the battery.

MOTORCYCLES WITHOUT BATTERIES

Some motorcycles do not have batteries in their electrical systems. These models power electrical component with the electricity generated by the alternator, which is regulated by an AC regulator, For components using transistors which require DC current, a small rectifier I CD power unit) is used to rectify alternator signals to DC and feed DC current to these components.

AC REGULATOR

ALTERNATOR

•thyristor

TO LOAD

REGULATOR

WITH PROTECTION CIRCUIT

to load

•thyristor

TO LOAD

REGULATOR

WITH PROTECTION CIRCUIT

Voltage regulator

To provide a stable current without using a battery, a high power output alternator that feeds sufficient current at low engine rpm is utilized. If the alternator continues supplying current as the engine rpm increases, the excessive current may burn out light bulbs,

To prevent this, the AC regulator maintains the output voltage of the alternator in the specified range. Some AC regulators have a protection circuit built into the alternator regulator circuit to prevent abrupt voltage increases on cold engine starts.

The current generated from the alternator flows directly to the loads at voltage levels lower than the regulated voltage value. As the engine rpm increases, the regulator detects the rise and directs current to Ihyristor, shorting the alternator output to ground. When the alternator voltage goes over the specified voltage, the regulator cuts off the excess voltage, maintaining a constant voltage output.

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/ REGULATED VOLTAGE

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ENGINE RPM

DC voltage unit

Although most electrical components receive AC current, there are systems such as the engine oil warning system which require DC current to operate their transistors and LEDs.

Therefore, a compact and light weight DC voltage unit regulates the AC current to these systems.

There ¿re systems and components used specifically tor AC; alternating flash turn signals, whose front and rear signals flash alternately, and AC horn which use electrical circuits and components designed for models without batteries.

AC REGULATOR DC VOLTAGE UNIT

ALTF.RNATÛR

AC REGULATOR DC VOLTAGE UNIT

ALTF.RNATÛR

batteries/charging/lighting system

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