Metering Diaphragm Fuel Chamber Atmospheric Vent Inlet Control Lever Inlet Compression Spring

Figure 3F-1. Carburetor Cross Section - Model HD

Figure 3F-2. Starting

channels, creating a low pressure on the fuel side of the metering diaphragm. Atmospheric pressure from the atmospheric vent moves the metering diaphragm toward the inlet control lever to allow fuel to enter the carburetor through the inlet needle and seat. The fuel is then forced through the metering system, out into the carburetor mixing passage, and into the manifold and engine. When the engine fires and starts to run, the volume of air drawn through the carburetor increases, and the spring-loaded top half of the choke shutter opens to provide the additional air required by the engine, to prevent an over-rich mixture. The choke can then be moved to a half-open position for engine warm-up.

During hot weather, or after an engine has been run long enough to reach stable operating temperatures, and then shut off for a short period of time, a small amount of fuel vapor may form in the fuel lines or in the fuel chamber of the carburetor. The vapor in the fuel lines will enter the fuel inlet and rise out of the vapor outlet, to be vented back into the fuel tank. The vapor that forms in the fuel chamber must escape through the metering system because there is no other vent to the fuel chamber. Starting a warm engine where vapor may be in the system, is most easily accomplished by placing the choke in the half-closed position, and starting as described above. The choke helps to get the vapor quickly out of the fuel system so that the fuel flowing through the carburetor and fuel line can cool the system to a normal temperature.

Starting is always more easily accomplished using the choke--full choke for a cold engine, and half choke for a warm engine.

Figure 3F-3. Idle

IDLE OPERATION (Fig. 3F-3)

The throttle shutter is slightly open when the engine is idling and the carburetor mixing passage on the engine side of the throttle shutter is exposed to engine suction, while the mixing passage between the throttle shutter and the air cleaner is at nearly atmospheric pressure. The engine suction is transmitted through the primary idle discharge port to the fuel chamber side of the metering diaphragm via the bypass chamber, idle fuel supply channel, intermediate adjustment channel, nozzle well, main fuel jet, and main fuel supply channel, creating a sub-atmospheric pressure, in the fuel chamber. The metering diaphragm is forced upward by atmospheric pressure, moving the inlet control lever to overcome the inlet compression spring pressure, allowing fuel to enter the fuel chamber through the inlet needle and seat. The fuel flows through the main fuel supply, main fuel jet, nozzle well, intermediate adjustment channel (where it mixes with air from the idle air-bleed) idle fuel supply channel, to the bypass chamber, where it mixes with air from the secondary idle discharge ports, and on out into the carburetor mixing passage through the primary idle discharge port. The mixture of well-atomized fuel and air then travels through the manifold and into the engine combustion chamber.

ACCELERATION (Fig. 3F-4)

Acceleration is accomplished by the use of a positive-action accelerating pun1 p that is actuated from the throttle shaft by a cam lever. The pump cylinder is filled when the pump is raised to the top of its stroke. Fuel is drawn irom the fuel chamber, through the accelerating pump inlet channel, past

Figure 3F-4. Accelerating the inlet check valve. The outlet check valve is closed to prevent air from being drawn into the accelerating pump system. As the accelerating pump is depressed, the pressure of the fuel closes the inlet check valve, the fuel flows through the pump channels, past the outlet check valve, through the accelerating pump outlet channel, and through the boost venturi into carburetor mixing passage.

INTERMEDIATE OR CRUISE OPERATION (Fig. 3F-5)

Fuel is delivered into the carburetor as described in idle operation, and the same fuel channels are in use. As the throttle shutter opens to increase engine speed, the secondary idle discharge ports are exposed to engine suction, and fuel is delivered from both the primary and secondary idle discharge ports to supply the additional fuel demanded by the engine. As the throttle shutter is opened farther, the air velocity through the boost venturi increases, creating a low pressure area at the nozzle outlet. Fuel flows from the fuel chamber through the nozzle outlet via the nozzle well, main fuel jet, main fuel supply channel, and economizer valve when the pressure at the nozzle outlet is less than the pressure in the fuel chamber. At the idle and lower intermediate speeds, the check ball in the economizer valve is away from the valve seat, allowing free flow from the fuel chamber through the economizer valve to the nozzle well and nozzle outlet. Fuel flow from the primary and secondary idle ports decreases as fuel flow from the nozzle outlet increases.

HIGH-SPEED OPERATION (Fig. 3F-6)

Fuel flow from the nozzle outlet increases as the shutter is opened past the intermediate position to

Figure 3F-5. Intermediate Speed

Figure 3F-6. High Speed

the fully-open position. The fuel is delivered through the nozzle outlet from the fuel chamber via the main fuel supply channel and the main fuel jet. The increased pressure difference between the small venturi and the metering chamber, plus the force of fuel flowing through the economizer valve, causes the check ball to seat, stopping the flow of fuel from this part of the main metering system. This gives increased economy at high speeds. The diaphragm action and the method of fuel delivery to the fuel chamber is the same as previously described.

ADJUSTING CARBURETOR (See Fig. 3F-7)

The carburetor, once properly adjusted, requires little if any readjustment. It should not be necessary to adjust the low speed needle (1) more than 1/8 turn and the intermediate speed needle (2) more than 1/4 turn, richer or leaner, to correct the mixture for a change in weather conditions.

Before attempting to correct faulty engine performance through carburetor adjustment, check over "Locating Operating Troubles," Section 1C. In addition be sure air cleaner element is not blocked with dirt and check manifold connections to be sure they are tight and not leaking air.

Inlet fitting (7) and vent fitting (8) have strainer screens located in threaded holes in carburetor body. If faulty carburetion indicates fuel flow is restricted, remove elbow fittings (7 and 8) from body, extract both screens with a bent wire, and blow out passages with an air hose. Replace screens and elbows, being sure that screens are not bent or damaged so as to allow dirt to pass through.

Check to see that carburetor vent iine hose leading from fitting (8) to gas tank is not blocked off. Also see that gas tank cap vent is not plugged. Either condition will restrict fuel flow.

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